Research the development potential of Green Hydrogen projects in Vietnam

Currently, the trend of shifting to using low-emissions energy forms is becoming urgent in the world, including Vietnam.
The demand for energy from fossil fuel sources such as oil and coal is forecasted to gradually decrease, replaced by more environmentally friendly forms of energy such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). , biomass fuel, green hydrogen gas is produced from carbon neutral sources. In particular, hydrogen and ammonia are emerging as a potential solution because they not only meet clean conditions, do not produce CO, CO2 but importantly, have an endless supply. After receiving the modulation, it can be converted into other forms of energy such as heat and electricity. Not only applied to energy systems, hydrogen and ammonia can be used as input materials for many different industries such as chemical, petrochemical, metallurgy and even in the fields of cosmetology and medicine. …

Currently, hydrogen gas is still mainly produced through the thermochemical process of fuels
fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil or coal due to cost advantages. However, this process produces many emissions that cause environmental pollution and the greenhouse effect. Therefore, other more environmentally friendly hydrogen and ammonia production methods are being encouraged to develop and commercialize at increasingly competitive costs.
In which, hydrogen production by electrolysis and then ammonia synthesis with energy input from mainly environmentally friendly renewable energy sources will be an advantage in the development path of the world. world today, towards an industrial world applying green energy.
The output product of these plants is Hydrogen gas, produced by water electrolysis technology, serving domestic demand and export in the power, chemical, petrochemical and metallurgical industries. The project, when put into operation, will contribute to local socio-economic development, and at the same time encourage the development of Vietnam’s Green Hydro Industry, contributing to the Net-zero roadmap as committed by the Government. Vietnam.
Hydrogen is a fuel for many industries. Hydrogen has become a target in the energy development strategy of many countries. In particular,  Green Hydrogen  is also expected to be the key to a zero-carbon economy. It is also an effective energy storage solution, helping to promote the development of renewable energy sources such as wind power, solar power…

The peculiarity of our country is that areas with strengths in renewable energy development are not the main load areas. This leads to the fact that there exist areas with “stagnation” of energy sources without timely building infrastructure to release capacity to consumption load centers. Typically, Ninh Thuan – Binh Thuan area, the coastal area of ​​the Mekong River Delta, etc. These are areas with very strong development of renewable energy, but the power grid through this area is not enough to load at full capacity. This immediately forced the dismissal of a very wasteful energy, the next effect is that the Plants do not continue to invest despite having great potential.
To overcome the excess of energy and balance the capacity, contributing to the regulation of the national power system, the solution of energy storage needs to be considered. For example, Ninh Thuan – Binh Thuan area has good potential energy from adjacent mountainous areas that can build stored hydroelectric power plants. However, the energy storage power plants have great environmental impacts, affecting the forest ecosystem, etc. and it is only limited, solving the problem of balancing local capacity according to peak-off-peak hours. And in the end, that storage source still has to re-energize the regional grid during peak hours.
Meanwhile, the solution of hydrogen production shows a storage efficiency equivalent to that of a storage power plant, but has the superior advantage of being able to transport dispersed hydrogen to load areas for power generation, or use directly for generating heat to run turbines for other industries or electrify in very flexible fuel cells (without stressing the on-site grid during both peak and off-peak hours, to make room for other forms of storage). other fixed capacity).

Thus, electricity is used in the hydrogen production process (by electrolysis of water), then it is generated by electrochemical processes (in fuel cells) or generated from gas turbines. Running on Hydrogen, Hydrogen is a long-term and effective method of energy storage. Hydrogen produced from renewable energy can be considered as a form of storage energy, for use within reasonable time frames; transport to areas where there is no advantage or provide for means of transportation… Therefore, the development of  Green Hydrogen  will at the same time help promote the development of renewable energy and the trend of energy transition. quality towards a zero-carbon economy.
The combination of Renewable Energy Plants (Solar Power Plants, Wind Power Plants…) with  Green Hydrogen  production facilities by electrolysis and Power Plants using fuel cells or gas turbines powered by Hydrogen To form an integrated energy system Electricity – Gas is also a solution to help take advantage of the advantages of both renewable energy and Hydrogen as an energy storage system.
The generation of electricity from renewable energy is increasingly cheaper, which is a great advantage to develop the green hydrogen production industry.
The areas of Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Mekong River Delta, and Gulf of Tonkin are areas with great potential for renewable energy, the transmission of electricity from offshore wind fields to the shore to connect to the transmission grid. Loading is both a complex and expensive solution. Accompanying that is the issue of security and safety of the undersea electric grid.
Applying hydrogen production technology right at sea will solve that difficult problem. Hydro customers have easy access to move finished products around the world via conduit mooring buoys without the need to build large-scale ports from land.

The technology is based on the generation of hydrogen, a very common and highly reactive lightweight fuel, through an electrochemical process.
This method uses an electric current to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen in the water. Therefore, if there is electricity from renewable energy sources, people will be able to produce electricity without having to emit CO2 into the atmosphere.

According to the IEA, this approach will help reduce 830 million tons of CO2 emitted annually in production processes using fossil fuels. Similarly, replacing all of the world’s gray hydrogen would require 3,000 TWh/year from new renewable energy sources, an amount equivalent to the current electricity needs of the whole of Europe.
However, there are some questions about the viability of Green Hydrogen due to the relatively high production cost. But continuing to decarbonize the earth gradually will help reduce the cost of producing renewable energy, alleviating doubts.
Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element in nature. As noted by the IEA, the global demand for hydrogen as a fuel has tripled since 1975 and this figure has reached an average of 70 million tons/year in 2018.
In addition, it is also a clean energy source because hydrogen production does not produce any harmful emissions. Unlike coal and oil, hydrogen energy production leaves no waste residue in the air.
Hydrogen has a long relationship with human industrial activities. This gas has played a role in fueling cars, airships and even spacecraft, since the early years of the 19th century.
The decarbonization of the world’s economic activities is almost impossible to be delayed in the near future and it will further highlight the role of hydrogen in human life.
In addition, if its production cost is reduced by 50% by 2030 as predicted by the World Hydrogen Council, Hydrogen is definitely the fuel we are looking for in the future. And also from those solid scientific foundations, major industrial manufacturers, including the automobile and motorbike manufacturing industry, etc., have begun to hesitate in getting ready for a source transformation revolution. internal combustion fuel or transition to the electric vehicle era. Toyota has researched to convert and successfully test a gasoline-powered car model to use Hydrogen fuel.

In fact, in the US, Russia, China, France and Germany, green hydrogen has been considered as a fuel source. Some other countries like Japan even go further with the vision of becoming a green hydrogen economy.
So how will this fuel source impact in the future?
Hydrogen and oxygen reacting together in a fuel cell can generate electricity and drinking water. This process has proven to be very useful on space probes because it provides a sustainable source of water and electricity for the crew.
At the same time, green hydrogen has potential for energy storage because compressed hydrogen tanks have the ability to store energy for a long time and are also easier to use than lithium-ion batteries because they are lighter.
Thanks to Green Hydrogen, transportation can reduce the burden of emissions. Hydrogen’s versatility allows it to be used in activities where it is difficult to reduce carbon emissions, such as heavy transport, aviation and marine. There are already a few projects underway in this area, such as the Hycarus and Cryoplane projects – promoted by the European Union (EU), which aim to be applied to civil aviation.
On December 9, 2021, under the chair of President Niger, the President of the United Nations in December, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) held an Open Discussion on Maintaining International Peace and Security in the United Nations. climate change and terrorism.

Ambassador Pham Hai Anh, Chargé d’Affaires of Vietnam to the UN, affirmed the need for a holistic approach to these issues, especially climate change, with the participation of the entire UN system at the UN level. at a global level, in which the Security Council plays a special role in addressing security risks, coordinating with other agencies in preventing conflicts, and ensuring sustainable peace.
In this process, it is necessary to ensure consensus, solidarity, cooperation and support among members, with the participation of countries and communities most affected, and of women and young people.
Ambassador Pham Hai Anh emphasized the need for forecasting, early preparation and strengthening the resilience of countries and people in responding to climate change.
Vietnam calls on countries to implement emissions reduction commitments and provide financial support made at COP26, ensuring the principle of shared but differentiated responsibility, based on the conditions and resources of each country. .
The Ambassador affirmed that as one of the countries most severely affected by climate change, Vietnam will continue to actively, actively and effectively participate in the joint efforts of the United Nations and multilateral forums in the region. respond to this challenge.
Thus, from the Net-zero commitment of the Vietnamese Government, our Government has now been building a “green” image in the international arena, calling on other countries to act together.
The call to “Ensure the principle of common but different responsibilities, based on the conditions and resources of each country” has hidden behind a potential for renewable energy development of Vietnam, and that is the difference and is a distinct advantage of a tropical coastal country.
Hydrogen is interested in many countries around the world as a clean energy source to replace fossil fuels. Hydrogen is also focused on as a energy storagestrategy to fully utilize the benefits of renewable energy, meet the energy transition needs, and solve environmental problems while ensuring security. national energy.

In 2020, the European Commission (EC) announced the “New Hydrogen Strategy”, which runs from 2020 to 2050, which aims to phase out greenhouse gas emissions in all sectors across the European Union, at the same time further develop reusable Hydrogen. Currently, the EU has more than 70 hydrogen research and development projects underway by governments, universities and businesses. Within the EU, Germany is aiming to become the world’s leading producer and supplier of Hydrogen. In June 2020, with the “National Hydrogen Strategy”, the German Cabinet agreed to spend 9 billion euros ($10.2 billion) to realize this goal. Meanwhile, the French government aims to use 10% Green Hydrogen in industry by 2022 and increase to 20-40% by 2027. Romania also gives a strong signal of support for  Hydrogen. green by establishing the ROHYDROHUB Center specializing in research activities in the field of Hydrogen.

In Asia, Japan is a pioneer in research and technology development and towards the Hydrogen economy. Since 1992, Japan has established the International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen – a program focusing on research and development of hydrogen technologies for 10 years. Since then, Japan has launched many national strategic plans and roadmaps on Hydrogen and fuel cells. Korea also aims to be the world leader in the market share of hydrogen-powered cars and hydrogen fuel cells. The Government of this country has agreed to apply the “Hordy Power Generation System” (HPS) until 2022 in order to systematically disseminate hydrogen fuel cells with a focus on expanding the hydrogen economy.
Recently, at COP26, the Prime Minister pledged to reduce net emissions to net zero (Net zero). And with that, more than 60 countries signed the pledge. To achieve net zero emissions by 2050, Vietnam needs a lot of international support, especially in technology and low-cost ODA sources.

During his working visit to Vietnam from February 13-15, the COP President met and worked with Prime Minister Pham Minh Chinh, Minister of Natural Resources and Environment Tran Hong Ha – Head of the negotiating team of Vietnam on climate change, Minister of Industry and Trade Nguyen Hong Dien and Minister of Planning and Investment Nguyen Chi Dung.
During the visit, Mr. Sharma welcomed the ambitious commitments made by Prime Minister Pham Minh Chinh at COP26, including the pledge to achieve net zero emissions by 2050 and the endorsement of the global joint declaration. demand for the transition from coal to clean energy. He also emphasized the UK’s determination to work with Vietnam to fulfill the above commitments, as well as to come up with a National Action Plan on climate change to 2030 in line with the target. target of the Paris Agreement – ​​under the goal of global warming at no more than 1.5 degrees Celsius.
The COP26 President also recognized the importance of the scale of public investment for Vietnam to make the transition to clean energy and the financial resources to support Vietnam in realizing its ambitious climate commitments. . This includes the potential opportunity from the “Green – Clean Initiative”, an initiative to assist developing countries to take advantage of green technology and sustain economic growth.

In an exchange with civil society organizations, Mr. Sharma learned about the opportunities and challenges of Vietnam and these organizations in responding to climate change. Mr. Sharma emphasized that the key to the success of COP26 is the active work and interaction with the above organizations, which play an important role in the success of COP26 and in the implementation of the commitments of the COP26. Glasgow Climate Convention.
The COP26 President also held a breakfast with representatives of international businesses to discuss the great potential of renewable energy in Vietnam. This potential was highlighted in the COP26 Energy Transition Council’s coal power mitigation report – chaired by the UK. Accordingly, if Vietnam switches to using wind, solar and gas energy, by 2030, Vietnam can reduce emissions by 59%, create 280,000 jobs and save $120 billion in import costs. fuel import.
COP26 President Alok Sharma said: “Great progress has been made at COP26, including countries agreeing to the Glasgow Climate Compact, keeping the goal of limiting global warming to no more than 1.5. degrees Celsius at hand. However, this is a slim victory. By 2022, countries should work to fulfill their commitments in the Treaty, starting with reviewing and accelerating emissions reduction targets.
During this visit, the UK Government’s COP26 Special Envoy, Mr. John Murton, also co-chaired the discussion with the World Bank’s Country Director for Vietnam and Deputy Finance Minister Tran Xuan Ha. finance for climate change. Discussion focused on opportunities and challenges of Vietnam in mobilizing the international financing needed for the country’s transition towards a net-zero emissions economy.
As introduced from the beginning, Vietnam has had a very hot development of the renewable energy industry in recent years (wind and solar).
In order to solve the problem of capacity release, while the electricity grid through here is still weak and lacking, building storage models (on-site and flexible storage) is a positive solution to help the province have a The Department continues to call for investors in the field of renewable energy, which has great potential in our country.
Especially, offshore wind energy has great potential to be exploited and stored to put into use in localities with great energy demand (HCMC, Binh Duong, Dong Nai,…).
Green Hydro is a field that is completely suitable according to the available conditions of Vietnam, where there are quite a few deep-water seaports to meet the demand for hydrogen transportation according to the set criteria.

In addition to the role of releasing capacity, the Green Hydro Power Plant also plays a role in regulating the power system, reducing the operating pressure of the national power system, especially the power system dispatching centers (A0, A2, A3). ) will have more choices of power and load balancing solutions in the region at times of the day (peak, off-peak). Accordingly, the modularization of Hydro production lines will help to flexibly put in and out of the power system each appropriate capacity group to help balance the capacity.

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